Wednesday, 16 November 2016

The AdBlue (part II)

After having started in the above mentioned topic in this blog (consult "the AdBlue, now also for passenger cars "), on this occasion, we intend to elaborate on the structure and operation of the analysed system adopted by the different manufacturers in their vehicles.

Each manufacturer "baptises" their NOx treatment system for the diesel engine with a commercial name, normally under the umbrella of the word “Blue”.

It is worth mentioning that some makes/brands, such as Volkswagen, Audi, and Seat do not assign any name that is visible in the vehicle logo.

Reducing agent:

As noted on previous occasions, the AdBlue reducing agent is based on an aqueous solution consisting of a 32.5% urea and 67.5% water. This compound is not dangerous to people or the environment.
However, included in the features of this product we highlight two peculiarities capable of generating problems:
-Due to its high water content it freezes at -11°C.
-In contact with the air, the Adblue tends to crystallize and can cause blockages in pipes and ducts.

Summary of the operation: 
As you know, the AdBlue reducing agent is dosed directly into the exhaust pipe thanks to the electronic injector. With the exhaust temperature, the additive is transformed into ammonia and enters the SCR reduction catalytic converter. This takes care of removing the NOx by chemical reaction, transforming them into nitrogen and water. The NOx sensor located at the output of the SCR checks there are no nitrogen oxides present at the output.

Thursday, 10 November 2016

Performance of the energy recovery system of the BMW Series 1

The principle of energy recovery is based on fuel economy during engine start up and a reduction in polluting emissions from the exhaust gases. In this way, according to the driving profile, we can save up to 3% of CO2 and thus save energy.

This system is applied to the intelligent regulation control system of the alternator, also known as the IGR system by BMW.

Operating principles

Operating principles

The application of strategies in the battery charging regulation system which enables the battery to be charged only up to a defined measurement and depending on the different environmental conditions such as the outdoor temperature, the temperature inside the battery, the age of the battery, battery charge, etc. 

In this way, the constant regulation of the system prevents energy being wasted while the engine is running without repercussions on the thermal efficiency of the latter.

Operating phases

Energy recovery is carried out during the vehicle's
propulsion phases. At this time, the alternator is fully activated and generates the electrical energy that supplies the battery. Once the vehicle is launched, it does not consume fuel as the kinetic energy acts from the vehicle under propulsion to the alternator passing through the wheels and engine.

However, during the acceleration phases of the vehicle the alternator is not activated, therefore it does not use any power or fuel to produce electrical energy.

Wednesday, 2 November 2016

Noise in gearbox after engaging 5th gear

This post discusses a fault that causes a noise in the area of the vehicle's gearbox when driving on the road, until eventually the 5th gear cannot be engaged.

Affected models 
The engines motors that could be affected are the following:

Noises in the gear shifting area when driving the vehicle, regardless of the speed at which it is driven.
Problems engaging 5th speed.
Gearbox oil leak

Friday, 28 October 2016

Types of active suspension (Il). Pneumatics for the Audi A8

Audi A8 air suspension 

Air suspension allows the body to be adjusted to different heights in accordance with running requirements, it also helps the suspension and damping to adapt to the road surface and driving style.

This suspension is noted for its high flexibility, good oscillation absorption and for the self-regulation of the system that allows the distance between the chassis and the surface of the road to be maintained irrespective of the vehicle's load.

With the aid of vertical acceleration sensors on the body, this suspension model recognises the ground configuration. The driving style can be ascertained based on the vehicle's speed and the steering angle.

Three different damping programs can be selected, auto, comfort and sport. Each one is activated depending on road conditions and the driver's wishes, and contributes to driving safety and comfort. Air suspension with adaptive damping also allows each damper to be controlled independently.

Friday, 21 October 2016

Diesel pollution

There have been numerous studies published during the last decade reporting on the high levels of pollution generated by diesel engines and their possible consequences.

The public scandal and the controversy however, are a matter of the past few months. Clearly encouraged by the irresponsibility and misconduct demonstrated by the VW Group in approving some of its diesel engines with specialist software for anti-pollution testing, much of the specialist communications media investigated the topic and the results were not slow in coming.

Toxic emissions from diesel vehicles in real operating conditions exceed and multiply several times over the “expected” quantities and maximum approved values.
To this day, it might be said that the problem is widespread and includes practically all manufacturers. In the majority of cases they have taken advantage of small legal loopholes in the approval tests in order to pass the emission tests and obtain the consumption data/official emissions which, moreover, are usually those that are publicised.
Small tricks such as increasing the tyre pressures, switching off all the electrical consumers including the power steering, using specific lubricants, among others, The test cycle is carried out on rollers which has little to do with actual driving conditions, either on the highway or in the city.

Tuesday, 11 October 2016

Simos PCR 2.1 high-pressure pump engine management system

In diesel engines of the VAG group, in the 1.6 CAYC version , this electronic management system for injection of fuel is carried out using a Simos PCR 2.1 Continental Common Rail System. The high pressure pump is driven by the timing chain and the injectors are the piezoelectric type. The engine control unit controls and regulates the fuel pressure and dose. In this chapter we will discuss the high-pressure pump. 

High pressure fuel pump
This is fixed on the front right hand side of the engine and is driven by the timing belt. It is a two piston pump that works with maximum pressures of 1600 bar.

Wednesday, 5 October 2016

Towards sustainable transport

With the arrival of electric vehicles, it was suggested that developments in the sector to leave fossil fuels behind would take this line.

The biggest disadvantage is the range which these vehicles have at this time, and in the infrastructures that the different administrations provide to equip cities and roads with battery-charging stations.

Siemens (the German industrial and technology group) jointly with the Swedish lorry manufacturer Scania, will build the first electrical highway in Sweden.

With the objective of reducing dependence on fossil fuels for transporting goods by road, the Swedish Transport Administration awarded the contract to the County of Gävleborg.
The cost of the project is more than 9 million dollars of which almost 6 will come from private investment.

Wednesday, 28 September 2016

The engine does not start: Immobiliser or key error

Our Department's review of incidents has confirmed a curiosity that affects the whole range of models of Volkswagen fitted with the immobiliser-transponder system. 

DTCs are recorded with immobiliser fault and key signal not identified. Various symptoms in the performance of the vehicle's engine are added together with these fault codes.

Below are detailed all the symptoms that appear: 

VW logo.

-P0513 - Incorrect code of the immobiliser.

-P1177 - 1177 - Key, signal not plausible.

-Engine does not start occasionally.

-Warning message on the instrument panel display which states the following: “Immobilizer enabled".

NOTE: This technical note only affects vehicles fitted with a transponder-immobiliser system. 

Tuesday, 20 September 2016

Volkswagen Group, 1.6 CAYC diesel engine, exhaust gas recirculation system - EGR.

Diesel engine 1.6 CAYC
Technical specifications.
4 cylinder, 1,598 cm³ turbo-diesel engine developed by the VAG group.
The engine has a double overhead camshaft and 16 valves.
Common rail direct injection system with piezoelectric injectors.
Charge air system with variable geometry turbocharger and intercooler.
Catalytic converter with particulate filter.
EGR solenoid valve with exhaust gas recirculation cooling.
Meets Euro 5 anti-pollution standard.

Torque and power curves:

Exhaust gas recirculation EGR.
The purpose is to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. A part of the exhaust gases are fed back into the combustion process. The engine control unit regulates the flow of recirculated exhaust gases, while taking into consideration the engine speed, the amount of aspirated air, the aspirated air temperature, amount injected and air pressure.

Tuesday, 13 September 2016

Tensioning of the parking brake in the BMW 1 Series and 3 Series

In this post, instructions as provided by the brand are given for correctly tensioning the parking brake in the 1 series and 3 series BMW.
This process affects the following bodies:

1 Series: E81, E82, E87 and E88.
3 Series: E90, E91, E92 and E93.


The hand brake must be adjusted if:
The parking brake shoes or other parts in the assembly are replaced.
The brake discs are replaced.
Excessive travel (10 teeth).
Renewal of the parking brake Bowden cables.

Tensioning process

First, detach the hand brake lever bellows. It is recommended to use plastic levers so as not to damage the vehicle's interior.
Lever the points indicated in the images to disengage the bellows and extract them over the lever.

Tuesday, 6 September 2016

P2294 fault codes recorded in the AUDI TT

From our Call Centre, we have been able to confirm the repetition of several faults in the Audi TT, where a code relating to the fuel pressure has been recorded.

08852 – P2294 – Fuel pressure regulating valve (N276). Interruption.
18726 – P2294 – Fuel pressure regulating valve (N276). Interruption.

In this case, the displayed fault code reading from the engine control unit will be fault code P2294 but, depending on the diagnostic tool used, it is possible that a decimal code will be recorded that may match the two options we give.

The Malfunction Indicator Light (MIL) is on due to a fault in the fuel circuit and there is a considerable lack of power.

The cause of this fault is a failure of the power supply of the fuel pressure regulating valve (N276), which comes from the engine component relay (J757).

To properly repair this fault, take the following steps:

- Check the electrical connection of the fuel pressure regulating valve and its power supply.

Thanks to our dis-net tool, we can access the engine diagram, the location and the monitoring of values of the fuel pressure regulating valve as shown in the image. 

Engine diagram. platform / Check on the N267

Wednesday, 31 August 2016

New concepts: new engines

The research carried out in recent years by petrol engine manufacturers has focussed on the battle to lower CO2 emissions (considered a cause of global warming).
Compliance with the magic figure of 130 gr/km valid until 2020 has got the engine development departments working flat out. This figure is the only one that has led to a radical rethink of the modern engine, as the Euro 4 to Euro 6 standards do not significantly differ as regards the polluting gases measured for approval (CO, HC and NOx).

The Lambda 1 petrol engine is a high generator of CO2, in fact in the catalytic converter two oxidations and a reduction occur, CO2 being a large part of the results.

Today, the only way to reduce CO2 emissions lies in reducing consumption. At the moment there is no system or device that assists the engine in lowering this emission.

Thursday, 18 August 2016

Types of active suspension (l). Hydroactive 3 for Citroën C5

In an ideal suspension system, the position of the wheels would not change with respect to the body. The purpose of the various active suspension systems is to control the stiffness of the damping.

In hydraulic and air systems, the height of the vehicle is also controlled depending on variations in weight and road conditions. Electronic and electro-mechanical systems are required for this. In this and subsequent posts, three examples of this type of suspension are going to be described: the Citroen C5 Hydroactive 3, the Audi A8 Air suspension and the VW Golf DCC Adaptive Chassis Control.

In this first post, we are going to look at the Hydroactive 3 suspension.

Hydroactive 3 from Citroën C5

This type of suspension allows the distance to the ground to be varied automatically depending on speed. There are two positions, sport and comfort, which automatically change the stiffness of the damping. These changes give greater stability due to the lowering of the centre of gravity by 15 mm at the front and 11 mm at the back, which reduces fuel consumption. On poor roads, the system can raise the height of the vehicle by up to 13 mm.

Hydroactive 3 facilitates choosing between the two suspension options, it allows switching, alternately and in real time, from a soft setting, which gives priority to comfort, to a hard one to improve stability, while taking into consideration the driving style and the road profile at all times.

The main elements involved in the system are:

1. Integrated hydroelectronic block.
2. Front bearing elements.
3. Front stiffness regulator with its sphere.
4. Front height sensor.
5. Rear hydropneumatic cylinders
6. Rear stiffness regulator with its sphere.
7. Rear height sensor.
8. Control unit.
9. Steering angle sensor.
10. Hydraulic fluid tank.
11. Accelerator pedal position sensor.
12. Braking pressure sensor.
-A simplified hydraulic system.

Tuesday, 16 August 2016

The required and correct maintenance of the particulate filter (FAP)

In 2010, the Euro 5 standard came into force that requires car manufacturers to install a Particulate filter (DPF or FAP), among other elements, in the exhaust systems of diesel engines.
The purpose of the FAP is to store soot particulates generated by the incomplete combustion of the fuel, which drastically reduces the harmful particulate levels emitted to the atmosphere.

The FAP is a particularly effective mechanical filter which is made up of honeycomb type cells that trap the particulates emitted during combustion. It can retain more than 99% of the combustion particulates.

Particulate filter

To regenerate the Particulate Filter and prevent internal saturation with soot, the system carries out a regeneration process. This process is activated when certain technical temperature and running conditions are fulfilled. When these conditions are met, the engine control unit starts this process by acting on the injection system in order to raise the temperature inside the particulate filter, and thus burn the soot accumulated in it.

Tuesday, 2 August 2016

How does the Valvematic system work?

The various car manufacturers’ race to develop systems to reduce emissions, consumption and increase performance of their engines has led the Japanese Toyota brand to develop its Valvematic intake valve variable lift control system.

The Valvematic system, in coordination with the VVT-i dual system (variable valve timing), carries out the continuously variable intake valve lift control, as well as controlling the actuation angle of the intake valve, the full opening of the throttle valve and the synchronisation of the intake valve in accordance with engine conditions. This improves engine performance and saves fuel. The intake valve lift varies between 0.09 mm and 11 mm in accordance with engine needs.

One of the particular features of this system is that the intake manifold throttle is fully opened (like a diesel) in order to reduce pumping losses at all engine speeds. The Valvematic system will act based on the information that the ECM (engine control module) has collected from the TDC (engine rpm) and NTC (coolant temperature) sensors, the exhaust and intake camshaft position Hall sensors, from the MAF (Mass Air Flow) sensors and from the intake throttle position sensor and through the EDU (servomotor control unit), and it will open the intake valves between the aforementioned 0.09 mm and 11 mm according to needs so that the engine runs at the speed required by the driver.

This system requires the use of a vacuum pump to provide the correct vacuum to control the brakes, this is because the throttle is fully open and there can be no difference in pressure between its faces.

Tuesday, 26 July 2016

Fault message: "Start of injection timing regulation" - Code 17656 in a VW Golf IV (1J5).

Our incident review department has confirmed the solution to a fault that affects the Volkswagen model - GOLF IV Variant (1J5) with 1.9 TDI engine that records a DTC of origin 17656 which tells us that there is a start of injection timing regulation fault in one of the cylinders as its regulation limit has been exceeded. This code is accompanied by various symptoms in the vehicle's engine performance. Below are detailed all the symptoms that appear:
·                     17656 - Start of injection timing regulation. Regulation incorrect. Cylinder 1, 2, 3 or 4. Regulation limits exceeded or below.
·                     Lack of engine power.
·                     Engine malfunctioning.
·                     Difficulty when starting the engine.
·                     Malfunction indicator lamp (MIL) on.

NOTE: This technical note only affects those vehicles equipped with an injection pump.

The following causes may be responsible for the aforementioned symptoms to occur:

·                     The service interval has been exceeded.
·                     There is dirt in the fuel tank and this dirt has clogged the fuel filter.

The solution that our workshop care and support department has successfully carried out is as follows:
·                     Read the fault codes in the engine control unit with the diagnostic tool.
·                     Confirm that the cited fault code is recorded that is mentioned in the symptom field of this technical note.
·                     Check that there is an optimal fuel level.
·                     Ask the customer if they have filled up with a suitable fuel.
·                     Check for leaks in the fuel supply circuit.
·                     Check for fuel impurities and quality.
·                     Replace the fuel filter.
·                     Clear the fault code recorded in the engine control unit.

It should be borne in mind that although the replacement of the fuel filter has prevented the majority of repetitions of this incident in our department, it is possible that the fault is due to another affected component, depending on the symptoms and type of vehicle. 

To be able to extract the fuel gauge correctly, the clips that secure it must be removed with great care. There are three securing clip positions for the fuel gauge which are located as shown in the image.

Tuesday, 19 July 2016

Park assist

Park assist systems are designed to help the driver during parking manoeuvres. The most used systems are those with ultrasonic parking sensors or a rear camera. 

Ultrasonic parking system

This is based on the use of sensors installed in the bumpers distributed strategically to cover a wide area. These sensors are mounted on the rear bumper and optionally on the front and are controlled by a control unit. 

The system is activated automatically on engaging reverse gear, the sensors are activated and emit an ultrasonic pulse that travels through the air. If there is an obstacle, the ultrasonic pulse will rebound from it and return to the sensor which will detect the pulse and inform the control unit. The control unit makes the calculation of the distance to the obstacle based on the time elapsed between the emission and the reception of the pulse. The maximum detection distance is approximately 0.8 to 1 metre.

The control unit emits an acoustic warning so that the driver knows the distance of the obstacle. These warnings are transmitted through independent loudspeakers or through the vehicle's audio system. As the vehicle nears an obstacle, the repeat rate of the audible warning increases. When the object is less than 30 centimetres from the centre of the vehicle’s bumper, the acoustic warning will sound continuously. 

Wednesday, 13 July 2016

Engine fault indicator light on


In this post, a fault is considered that causes the engine fault warning light to remain permanently on.


The models that can be affected are the following:

VW POLO 9N Motor 1.4-1.2 (BBY-AZQ) VW POLO 9N Engine 1.4-1.2 (BBY-AZQ)
SEAT IBIZA 6L Motor 1.4-1.2 (BBY-AZQ) SEAT IBIZA 6L Engine 1.4-1.2 (BBY-AZQ)


- The engine fault light comes on.

- The vehicle jerks slightly.

- Excessive fuel consumption.

Tuesday, 5 July 2016

Fault in the fuel flow control solenoid valve – KIA Engine J3 2.9 CRDi


KIA CARNIVAL / GRAND CARNIVAL III (VQ) 2.9 CRDi (J3) 136 kW (185 CV) ’06-

The manufacturing date of the affected vehicles: 
03.2006 (start of production) to 10.12.2007.


The symptoms that may be found are the following:
Engine fault indicator light (EOBD) on.
Fault message on the instrument panel multifunction screen.
The engine control unit enters an emergency/reduced power phase.

The following fault code is recorded on the diagnostics machine:

P0088 – Pressure too high in the fuel common rail. 

There may be more associated fault codes seen on the diagnostic machine.

Tuesday, 28 June 2016

Fault: Codes B1012 and B1020 on reading the CIM of an Opel Vectra C

The vehicle displays two specific fault codes in the control unit integrated into the steering column:

B1012 – Steering wheel angle sensor not calibrated.

B1020 – Steering wheel angle sensor. Functioning or limit value problem.

The fault indicator light for the stability control system (ESP) is on on the instrument panel when driving the vehicle.

The warning indicator light for the electro-hydraulic steering system (EHPS) is on on the instrument panel.

The indicator light stalk may malfunction, it does not return to its initial position.

 The cause of this fault is nothing more than a internal failure of the steering angle sensor (SAS), which is located inside the control unit (CIM) integrated in the electro-hydraulic power steering column (EHPS system). Unfortunately, due to the soldering of the sensor in the unit, it is not possible to repair it separately to reduce the cost of the fault repair, the complete module (CIM) must be replaced with an up-to-date version.

Monday, 20 June 2016

Checking power supplies

We are going to do a bit of revision, and what better than an everyday example:

A vehicle comes into our workshop that does not start or does so with difficulty.

We verify that it does not start, and then the first thing we do is check the existing or stored errors using the diagnostic apparatus.

 On the diagnostic machine we see that there is an injection relay error. Next, and due to the ease of testing another relay, we replace this relay to see if it is indeed malfunctioning (this is a common 20 amp relay, and there are bound to be some in the workshop), we fit the new relay and test it.
The car continues to have the fault and does not start, there is no other option but to start checking the installation.

Wednesday, 15 June 2016

Evolution of exhaust systems between 1990 and 2014. Euro standard

Exhaust system technology has evolved continuously as a result of European environmental requirements. The purpose of all of these requirements is to control the levels of polluting gas emissions and noise from all vehicles sold in the European Union. The way in which vehicles are checked for compliance with the standards after sale is to check them at vehicle technical inspection centres (ITV/MOT). The controls required of the manufacturers have obliged them to create new exhaust systems to reduce the amount of polluting gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Evolution table of the EURO standards for control of exhaust gas emissions.

Tuesday, 31 May 2016

Carbon fibre

The specialised use of the material in the world of competition, as well as the advance of the technology has resulted in carbon fire being more common in the automotive field.

Until a few years ago, this synthetic material was exclusively used in aeronautics and the world of top competition. Now, we can find this material anyway from supercars to everyday objects such as bicycles, watches, etc.
First, we must remember that carbon fibre is a synthetic fibre made up of filaments which measure from 5 to 10 µm in diameter. Each one of these is the union of thousands of carbon fibres manufactured from polyacrylonitrile.

The properties of carbon fibre are: 

·                     High mechanical strength (3 times greater than that of steel) with a high modulus of elasticity
·                     Low density in comparison with other materials: The density of carbon fibre is 1750 kg/m³, while that of steel is 7850 kg/m³.
·                     Resistance to external agents (corrosion, oxidation, etc.).
·                     High thermal insulation capacity.
·                     Resistance to temperature variations, it maintains its shape only if a thermostable matrix is used.
·                     It is a semiconductor.
·                     High price in comparison with other materials. Currently, a kg of carbon fibre is around €100, while the price per kg of steel is 2 to 5 € approximately.
·                     The main application is the manufacturer of composite materials with thermostable polymers such as epoxy resin, although it can be associated with others such as polyester or vinyl ester.

Tuesday, 24 May 2016

High idling speed accompanied by oil leaks, lack of power and fault codes on VAG 2.0 TFSI vehicles


On some models from the VAG manufacturer with 2.0 TFSI (Turbocharged Fuel Stratified Injection) engine, with BWA, BPY and BYD engine management, it is likely that the following fault will be found:

Firstly, after repeated incidents, a list of recorded fault codes became evident in the engine control unit that could occur: 

P0507 – Idle control fault.
P2279 – Leak in the air intake system.

·                     In this fault, constant oil leaks are identified at the rear of the engine and in the spark plug locations. It is possible that fuel may be found in the spark plug area due to a loosening of the cylinder head bolts as a result of excessive pressure in the lubrication circuit.
·                     The valve intended to retain the crankcase vapours (PCV), that is joined to the cylinder head cover does not function correctly, specifically the internal membrane of the non-return valve. This PCV internal fault allows the turbo pressure to enter the oil vapour circuit.
·                     The model of the crankcase oil vapour purge valve must be checked and the metal hose doser that runs from the turbocharger to the intake manifold. There are specific spares for these two parts to solve this fault.
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